Perfective And Progressive Aspects I
Perfective And Progressive Aspects I
Aspect refers to a gramm. category which reflects the way in which the verb action is regarded or experienced with respect to time. Not relative to the time of utterance.
In simple past the event has come to a close whereas the perfective indicates that the event is still in progress. Present perfective signifies past time with current relevance. The perfective indicates anterior time, which is (time preceding whatever time orientation is signalled by tense or by other elements of the sentence or its content.)(előidejű) Within this zone the action of the verb takes place. In case of present perfective, the time of orientation is not fixed(I have already met your sister) . In case of past perfective T2 is a specifiable secondary time of orientation in the past. In conditionals (3rd) the past tense indicates a hypothetical event. If you had listened to me.
The usage of past in future may occur in sentences like By next week they will have completed the work. Here the infinitive perfective occurs after a modal auxiliary and the time orientation derives not from the infinitive itself, but from the modal. The inf. perf. is in a nonfinite verb phrase which takes its time orientation from the main verb.
The present perfective:
The present perfective differs from the simple past in relating a past event to a present time orientation. In cases where both simple past and present perfective can be used it is felt that they are not interchangeable. Present perfective relates the action more directly to the present time. Where did you put my purse. Where have you put my purse. In first case the speaker asks somebody to remember a past action while in the second case he asks his purse’s whereabouts.
The simple present perfective has three meanings: State leading up to the present. That house has been empty for ages. Indefinite events in a period leading up to the present: Have you ever been to Florence. The past time in question is indefinite. Habit in a period leading up to the present. Mr Terry has sung in this choir ever since he was a boy.
Variants of the indefinite past meaning:
There are three implications for present perfective :
The relevant time zone leads up to the present/ The event is recent/ The result of the action still obtains in the present time. The choice between the simp. past and the present perfect depends on wether the speaker has in mind an implicit or an explicit time zone. The present perfective is often used to report a piece of news. The president has resigned.
In case of dynamic conclusive verbs ( these imply the accomplishment of change of state)
The apples have all been eaten. The resultative and recency connotations can occur with time adverbials( recently and just) or( already and yet). The plane has just landed. Relationship adverbials(already,yet) can occur with both resultative and stative aspect.
The use of adverbials with the simple past and the present perfective:
There are adverbials associated with the past tense: yesterday, a week ago, earlier this week, last Monday, the other day, at four, in the morning. Adverbials associated with the present perfect: up to now, since, so far, hitherto. Adv. associated with both: today, this month, recently, before, once, already.
The past perfective:
Has the meaning of past in the past. The past perfective is to denote any event or state anterior to a time of orientation in the past. There are state event or habit meanings. In a clause introduced by AFTER past perfective is interchangeable with simple past: I ate my lunch after Sandra had come back from her shopping. It is also good with CAME. Adverbials of time position ca identify eighter T2 or T3 (then and before then) When the police arrived the thieves had run avay. But its better to say: The thieves had run away when the police arrived.