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Gerund – infinitive használata

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VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND (-ING FORM)

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AFTER, BEFORE and ALL THE PREPOSITIONS are followed by GERUND. We use the gerund after go + activity (especially sports).

All verb + preposition and verb + object + preposition are followed by gerund.

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We also use the gerund after some phrases:

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VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVE (TO + VERB)

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*   starred verbs are followed by an object + infinitive

** starred verbs can be used with or without an object

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND   OR   OBJECT + INFINITIVE

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VERBS FOLLOWED BY BARE INFINITIVE (WITHOUT TO)

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Note: ‘help’ and ‘dare’ can be used with or without to. ‘Make’ in the passive is followed by to + infinitive. With an object after ‘would rather’ we use Subjunctive.

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VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITHOUT A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING

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VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR INFINITIVE WITH A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING

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All the verbs of sensation (see, hear, feel, smell) can be followed by gerund or infinitive without to.

Meaning and examples:

forget + inf. = not to remember

E. g.: I forgot to lock the door. I have to go back. forget + gerund = remember doing something in the past

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E. g.: I will never forget meeting her for the first time. go on + inf. = do or say something new

E. g.: After writing his homework he went on to learn the words. go on + gerund = continue

E. g.: Don’t stop, please. Go on reading the next paragraph. like + inf. = to think it is good and right

E. g.: I like to go to the dentist twice a year. like + gerund = enjoy

E. g.: I like eating pizza. mean + inf. = intend to do something

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E. g.: I didn’t mean to hurt you yesterday. I just lost my temper. mean + gerund = to have something else as a result

E. g.: Shopping in the Tesco means standing at the cashier for hours. need + inf. = it is necessary for me to do something

E. g.: I need to go to the dentist. need + gerund = something has to be done

E. g.: This room needs painting. propose + inf. = intend to do something

E. g.: I propose to go to the dentist. propose + gerund = suggest something

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E. g.: He proposed going to an another restaurant. regret + inf. = to feel sorry to tell or do ( first regret and then do)

E. g.: I regret to inform you that you failed the test. regret + gerund = do it and then feel sorry (first do and then regret)

E. g.: I regretted asking him to cook dinner. It was awful. remember + inf. = not to forget (first remember then do)

E. g.: Remember to turn the gas off before you leave. remember + gerund = do something in the past and have the memories ( first do and then remember)

E. g.: I remember playing chess with my dad when I was a little. stop + inf. = have a break to do something

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E. g.: We stopped to smoke a cigarette then got back to the car and continued our trip. stop + gerund = finish

E. g.: Yesterday I stopped smoking. I will never light a cigarette again. try + inf. = make an effort or attempt

E. g.: I tried to open the box but it was locked. try + gerund = do something as a new experiment or test

E. g.: I have a terrible headache. I think I’ll try taking an aspirin. see, feel, hear, smell  + inf.  =  the whole action was noticed

E. g.: I saw him cross the road. see, feel, hear, smell  +  gerund  = only a part of the action was noticed

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E. g.: I saw him waiting in the bus stop.


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