Complementation Of Verbs I.
Multi word verbs: Phrasal verb, prepositional verb, ph.-prepositional verb. Only considered multy word verbs where they behave as single unit. Verb is a unit which behave either lexicaly or syntactically. Particle is what follows the verb. Prepositions: against, among,as… Either prepositions or spatial verbs: about, above, across. Spatials only: aback, ahead.. The most obvious difference between the prepositions and the spatial adverbs is that where prepositions require a following noun phrase as a prepositional complement, there is no such requirement for adverbs.
1. Intransitive phrasal verbs. Intransitive phrasal verb consisting of a verb plus an adverb particle. These are usually informal. The particle functions like a prediction adjunct and usually cannot be separated from its lexical verb. In phrasal verbs the meaning of the combination manifestly cannot be predicted from the meanings of verb and particle in isolation, but in free combinations the verb acts as a normal intransitive verb, and the adverb has its own meaning. The separability of verb and adverb in terms of meaning is shown by possible substitutions. There are also syntactic signs of cohesion. In free combinations it is often possible to place a modifying adverb (right) between the adverb particle and the verb. This insertion is to differing extents unacceptable with phrasal verbs. Another sign of free combination is the possibility of placing the adverb before the verb with subject-verb inversion. (Out came the sun). But with phrasal verbs it is not possible. Where the phrasal verb makes metaphorical use of spatial adverbs inversion seems acceptable.
2: Many phrasal verbs may take a direct object an can be described as transitive. With most type2 phrasal verbs the particle can either precede or follow the direct object. The particle tends to precede the object if the object is long, or if the intention is that the object should receive end-focus.
There is no sensitive method of testin cohesion by placing the particle before the subject as this position is not possible. Like transitive verbs in general type2 phrasal verbs can normaly be turned into the passive without stylistic awkwardness. The particle cannot normaly be placed after a clausal object.