Reporting The Language Of Others II.
If the identity of the speaker and the person addressed are not the same as in the situation of the original utterance, the personal pronouns need to be changed. Pronoun shift requires the shift of 1st and 2nd person pronouns to 3rd person pronouns or to nouns, when the person referred to in the original utterance are absent in the reported utterance. 1st an 2nd person pronouns are used as appropriate to the reporting situation. If the relation between the the original and the reported utterance has changed it is necessary to make adjustments. Place references change or be cpecified by name. If the relative distancing has changed, the demonstratives also change.
Indirect statements, questions, exclamations, and directives: Indirect statement: that clause,
indirect question: dependent wh-clause, indirect exclamations: dependent wh-clause. indirect directives: that clause and to-infinitive clause. With directives there is no tense backshift in the verb forms: mandative, subjunctive, putative should and to-infinitive. If to-infinitive construction is used for an indirect directive, the reporting clause normaly requires an indirect object or a prepositional object.
The subjunctive an modal auxiliaries in indirect speech: There is no indirect speech construction for the optative subjunctive, but when it is used to express a wish the construction with may is sometimes a near equivalent. There is no backshift for the mandative subjunctive. The past subjunctive or hypoth. past is backshifted to hypothetical past perfective if there is a change in time reference. Backshift is optionall if the proposition in the indirect speech is still valid. If there is a change in time reference, a modal auxiliary is backshifted from present tense forms to past tense forms. If a modal auxiliary in the direct speech. is already in the past tense form, then the same form remains in the indirect speech. Several modal auxiliaries or marginal modals have only one form (must). This form remains in indirect speech. But in this case it can be replaced by had to. If the proposition in the indirect speech is valid at the time of utterance the backshift is optional.
Free indirect and direct speech: Used to report speech or the stream of thought. The reporting clause is omitted. The potantialities of direct speech sentence structure are retained. It is only the backshift of the verb, with equivalent shifts in personal pronouns, and time and place referencesthat signals the fact thjat the words are being reported. In the case of free direct speech it is used in fiction writing to represent a persons stream of thought. It is a form of direct speech but it is merged with the narration without any overt indication by a reporting clause of a switch to speech. Its distinguished form is the past time reference of the narration by its use of present tense forms.
Transferred negation: It is the transfer of the negative form a subordinate clause where semantically it belongs to the matrix clause.
I dont think its a good idea can have two meanings: negation applies to the matrix or to the subordinate clause. The matrix verbs that allow transfered negation fall into several semantic groups: Opinion(anticipate, Perception(appear), Intuition may differ whether 2 sentences are synonymous. Lack of synonymy becomes evident if the adjective is intensified. Not all verbs in the same semantic field allow transfered negation(assume). Addition of modal auxiliaries in the matrix clause may prevent transfered negation with verbs that otherwise allow it.