3 perc olvasás

All of the following ideologies had roots in the enlightenment, industrial and French revolution.



Liberalism the greatest possible influence of the individual on the public, but at the same time the smallest possible intervention of the public in the life of the individual. Everything is free that does no harm to anyone else (Harm principle), giving the individual economic and political freedom.

Main characteristics of LIBERALISM:

  • rejection of unlimited ruling power,
  • civil liberties (freedom of speech, press, religion), democracy, secularism, internationalism
  • equality before the law, the presumption of innocence
  • representation
  • Free market competition, laissez-faire (no government control)
  • state exercise power within the constitutional framework
  • inalienable rights. i.e. civil liberties


NATIONALISM: regards the individual as a member of the nation. We need a constitution (revolutionists wanted to have a law framework; they wanted a more representative system of government. This is based on the ideology of liberalism.) and a nation-state (People wanted to belong to a country. They wanted to have the same rights and wanted to unite together. For instance, Belgians.)

Principles of Nationalism:

  • tries to preserve traditions and folk traditions
  • not class but nation-category, everything in the interest of the nation.
  • It uses symbols such as the coat of arms, flags & anthems to express togetherness

What do we mean by ‘nation’?

  • Nation: a group of people with shared language(s), literature, history, music, culture, traditions and history.
  • Political nation: the ‘political nation’, where there is no common language, perhaps nor religion; historical tradition may or may not be relevant. This happened in Hungary in 1848 (Kossuth: there is one nation here, the Hungarian. This included Romanians, Serbs, Slovaks, Germans, Rusins, Croats even if many did not speak Hungarian. He meant what he said; he thought in legal rather than ethnic terms.)
  • Patriotism: love and belonging to a motherland
  • Chauvinism: extreme patriotism/nationalism (our nation is superior, we
    can colonise)
  • Community of people = ‘nation’. The (1) French and the (2) German conceptions:
    • (1) those who believe in the same principles & values living together and sharing the same rights
    • (2) those with common history, literature, language, traditions, culture, & music. So based on ethnicity.


CONSERVATISM anti-religion, the loosening of traditional frameworks, and the terror experienced during the Great French Revolution encouraged certain groups in society to reject rapid change.

Characteristics of CONSERVATISM:

  • counteraction to certain actions of the French Revolution (Jacobin terror, denial of old values, anti-religion)
  • ensures order, and preserves values but modifies
  • prefers slow organic development over radical change

Napoleon broke with the anti-religion stances and made peace with the pope/ concordat


SOCIALISM was triggered by the unfavorable social effects of the first Industrial Revolution (capitalism): the vulnerability of the masses of workers, their poor living conditions, their misery, their insecurity.

Characteristics of SOCIALISM

  • aim is to create social equality between people
  • correcting the market

Utopian socialists(German):

Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels “The Communist Manifesto” –> an interpretation of history

  • No bourgeoisie (capitalist middle class) exploitation of the proletariat (working class)
  • Proletariat get power contribute & share
  • Classless society
  • Next step is Communism
  • Taxes, public education and health care are modern examples. click